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Optical Mater. Total absorption by degenerate critical coupling. Huang, M. A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating. Photonics 1 , Magnusson, R. Physical basis for wideband resonant reflectors. Express 16 , — Karagodsky, V. Physics of near-wavelength high contrast gratings.


Express 20 , — Park, G. Hybrid grating reflector with high reflectivity and broad bandwidth. Suh, W.

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All-pass transmission or flattop reflection filters using a single photonic crystal slab. Temporal coupled-mode theory and the presence of non-orthogonal modes in lossless multimode cavities. IEEE J.

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Song, H. Tunable guided-mode resonances in coupled gratings. Express 17 , — Moharam, M. Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings. A 12 5 , — Koppens, F. Graphene plasmonics: A platform for strong light matter interactions.

Lee, S. Angle- and position-insensitive electrically tunable absorption in graphene by epsilon-near-zero effect. Isic, G. Saremi, M. Particle swarm optimization and its application to the design of diffraction grating filters. Download references. All authors discussed the results and contributed to the writing of the manuscript. Correspondence to Sangin Kim.

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Skip to main content. Subjects Graphene Optoelectronic devices and components. Abstract We propose a novel device structure for the perfect absorption of a one-sided lightwavve illumination, which consists of a high-contrast grating HCG and an evanescently coupled slab with an absorbing medium graphene. Introduction Undoped monolayer graphene has high conductivity and exhibits broadband light absorption of 2.

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Figure 1. Full size image. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Methods We theoretically analyzed the behavior of the proposed structure using the CMT 17 , 18 , References 1.

Article PubMed Google Scholar 4. Ethics declarations Competing Interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Wang , Oft criticized by the Eastern establishment, Dr. Again, a nod here to Justin Williams, who recognized the primacy of the automobile in American life and its connection to Dr.

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While still distinct and awesome, the Los Angeles area is less a city and more of an expansive, sprawling suburb, navigated, like most American spaces, by car; the perfectly safe location to glean the vicarious dangers of listening to gangsta rap. In contrast, Dr. Karen Tongson notes the duality ever present in the relationship of these locations:. The American suburbs may have functioned historically as spaces of escape from the decline of industrial cities, but the two have nevertheless shared, over time, a codependent relationship.

Never too far apart, yet seemingly worlds away, suburbs and cities—as the joke goes about many longtime companions—are beginning to resemble each other. Tongson , 9. California Penal Code section defines the crime of murder. Even when brandishing guns and celebrating menace, Southern California rappers invited listeners to view racially and sexually charged alienated individuals as mythological, violent gangstas at a safe distance.

The laid-back flows, beats made for the ride, and images of normative suburban socialization made the plight of a young black underclass palatable.

The tendency of East Coast performers is to anchor their testimony to boroughs of New York City and the artists who inhabited them. What Does It Mean? Analysis and import of gangsta rap lyrics and its imagery have been chronicled in many places Bradley and Dubois , Dyson, Kelly Quinn, Watkins but what is significant here is how South Central LA and gangsta rap became a placeholder for all that ails America.

When exploring the origins and intentions of N. But considering N. In their ambiguous and inconclusive politics, N. Using sub urban landscapes, soundtracks for automobiles and familiar funk melodies, the initial generational, racial, and class divides G Funk allegedly produced were not as absolute as on first listen Quinn , With this approach to rhyme and beat, West Coast practitioners certainly alienated East Coast purists, but they may have also provided an entrance to West Coast hip hop for outsiders as well. Things are kinda wack now, packed up, my cardboard and stepped away.

They wanna brag about the neighborhood, oh, you wanna boast? East Coast hip hop grew out of a cultural movement prizing artistic innovation and competition above all else in a quest for the claim of originality. Whereas West Coast producers such as Dr. Dre and Warren G celebrated the musicianship, professional sound quality, and commercial acumen of their work, East Coast producers such as Da Beatminerz in the s reveled in the obscurity of sources, creativity born from scarcity, and a sound that was likely going to be rejected by wider audiences rather than embraced.